Tuesday, May 15, 2001

RECENT EAST-WEST CENTER PUBLICATIONS

May 13, 2001

The following are new titles from the East-West Center and by East-West Center staff. Ordering information and abstracts of the publications appear after the listing of titles.

· The Asia Pacific Security Order and Implications for U.S. Policy, by Chris Johnstone (rapporteur). Senior Policy Seminar 2000, January 2001.

· Negotiating and Consolidating Democratic Civilian Control of the Indonesian Military, by Dewi Fortuna Anwar. East-West Center Occasional Papers, Politics and Security Series, No. 4. February 2001.

· APEC and the Environment: Civil Society in an Age of Globalization, by Jack Barkenbus. AsiaPacific Issues, No. 51. March 2001.

 

The Asia Pacific Security Order and implications for U.S. Policy, by Chris Johnstone (rapporteur). Senior Policy Seminar 2000, January 2001. 54 pp. Paper, $7.50 plus shipping/handling.

The many uncertainties in the outlook for the Asia Pacific regional order dominated the discussions at the 2000 Senior Policy Seminar. A number of positive and welcome events over the preceding year were noted - the unexpectedly swift recovery of most of the region from the economic-financial crisis of 1997-98, the dramatic (though still not considered definitive) prospects for change on the Korean peninsula opened up by the summit meeting between the South and North Korean leaders in June, and the multinational operation in late 1999 to restore order in East Timor was also considered to have been a basically successful case of international cooperation in dealing with a security and humanitarian crisis although the longer-term nation building lies ahead.

However, many if not most other aspects of the regional outlook were considered far more problematic. Problem areas discussed included:

· The basic lack of consensus over the nature, evolution, and possibilities of the regional security order;

· Uncertainties regarding the policies and relations of the major powers involved in the region (critically including U.S.-China relations);

· Continuing flash points and other sources of conflict between the states of the region, as well as serious internal problems in several cases, most particularly Indonesia;

· Inexorable forces of globalization that are weakening every government’s ability to control its own destiny; and

· An ominous combination of the spread of weapons of mass destruction and associated delivery systems and of new and potentially destabilizing technological developments most visibly exemplified by the issue of missile defense systems.

All of these factors were seen as sources of continuing debate, differences, and even of possible conflict in the region.

Another major theme at the Seminar was the absence or weakness of international and regional institutions capable of dealing with the many issue areas identified. An increasing level of peacekeeping and peace-restoring activities by the international community was noted, particularly under the auspices of the United Nations. A major new area of interest is the rising emphasis on the "right" of the international community to conduct "humanitarian interventions" where fundamental human rights are being endangered even as a result of internal conflicts within states. Nevertheless, the general assessment of the Seminar was that international institutions, procedures, and norms for dealing with conflict still face serious obstacles and lag far behind the challenges posed in today’s world, challenges that seem bound to become even more complex in the future. In the absence of an effective international framework to deal with issues of global order, the lack of strong regional institutions in the Asia Pacific has even more serious potential consequences.

 

Negotiating and Consolidating Democratic Civilian Control of the Indonesian Military, by Dewi Fortuna Anwar. East-West Center Occasional Papers, Politics and Security Series, No. 4. February 2001. 44 pp. Paper, $7.00 plus shipping/handling.

The democratization process in Indonesia has begun in earnest and has led to the formation of a democratically elected government supported by a genuinely open and pluralistic political system. Nonetheless, it is generally acknowledged that consolidating democracy will be a slow and painful process. Of the many challenges faced by the new Indonesia, the most difficult will surely be the reformation of the military from a long-term social-political force into a truly professional defense force under democratic civilian control. In this paper the author puts forward 10 steps that need to be taken to negotiate and consolidate democratic civilian control of the military, to ensure that the military is no longer used to prop up authoritarian regimes, and to transform the Indonesian military into a truly professional defense force.

This paper is divided into six main parts. The first part provides a brief history of the expansion of the role of the Indonesian military and its relationship with successive governments from independence to the establishment of Soeharto’s New Order. The second part looks at the military’s political dominance and economic activities under the New Order. The third examines the various steps and advances that have been made toward ending the military’s social-political role and special privileges. The fourth part outlines the many obstacles and challenges to imposing democratic civilian control over the military. The fifth provides policy recommendations and outlines practical measures that can be taken to consolidate democratic civilian control, including the possible role of the international community. The final part presents conclusions regarding the prospects for Indonesia’s democratic consolidation, and the efforts to end military intervention in politics once and for all.

 

PEC and the Environment: Civil Society in an Age of Globalization, by Jack Barkenbus. AsiaPacific Issues, No. 51. March 2001. 8 pp. Printed hard copy available for $2.50 plus shipping/handling. Free downloadable pdf file located at http://www.EastWestCenter.org/stored/pdfs/api051.pdf

The continuation of Asia’s economic development and improvement in living standards is dependent upon addressing its worsening environmental problems. While the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum is not ideally structured to deal with Asia’s urgent environmental problems, it can take an important step toward improving prospects for Asia’s environment by bringing civil society, specifically nongovernmental groups for the environment, into APEC deliberations. This can be done by including members of environmental organizations in: (1) APEC working groups and through the creation of an APEC Civil Society Advisory Council; (2) a new APEC Commission for Environmental Cooperation; and (3) policy dialog forums where contentious issues such as the environment-trade nexus are addressed. While none of these suggestions requires any basic changes to APEC’s structure, they do call for tolerance, even encouragement, of a more open and collaborative APEC dialog. These changes are not only necessary for environmental improvement, but also for ensuring that liberalized trade and investment stay on course.

Search the East-West Center website at http://www.EastWestCenter.org/res-rp-asearch.asp  for other publications by the East-West Center and its staff. To order the publications referenced above, contact the East-West Center Publication Sales Office at ewcbooks@EastWestCenter.org

East-West Center Publication Sales Office 1601 East-West Road Honolulu, HI 96848-1601 USA Tel: (808) 944-7145 Fax: (808) 944-7376

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